The analysis and Countermeasures of casualty accidents in crane operation are introduced in detail.
Hoisting machinery has a long history and a wide variety of applications. All sectors of the national economy, such as metallurgy, machinery, transportation, electricity, construction, mining, chemical engineering, shipbuilding, ports, railways, farms, forest areas and national defense, are all inseparable from heavy machinery. With the progress of science and technology and the development of economic construction, the lifting machinery is becoming more and more prominent as the special equipment for realizing the mechanization, automation, reducing the strength of manual labor and improving the productivity of labor. The modern hoisting machinery structure has developed to the mechatronics direction of large scale, precision, high efficiency, multi-function and pleasant. For many years, due to the lack of strict and scientific system safety management for the design, manufacture, installation and maintenance of lifting machinery, the casualty accidents in the lifting machinery are outstanding.
2. types and causes of accidents
Because of a wide variety, wide application and complex structure, the lifting machinery has developed rapidly in our country in the past more than 20 years. It is not only compared with the developed countries in the aspects of product specification, quality stability, production efficiency, automation level, safety device sensitivity and management level, and so on. There is a gap, and there are many problems that can not meet the needs of the development of lifting machinery for the time being, so the casualty accidents occurring in the lifting machinery are common. According to relevant statistics, at present, all regions and trades in our country take place in hoisting machinery operation casualties, accounting for about 1/5 to 1/3 of all casualties. The accidents and their causes in the operation of cranes are mainly the following:
2.1 extrusion colliding people
Squeezing and colliding people means that the workers are squeezed and knocked up by the cranes in operation.
The hoisting machine is also a common casualty accident in the lifting machinery operation. It is also very dangerous and the result is very serious, which often leads to the death of the personnel.
There are four main types of accidents in overweight mechanical operations.
(1) the crane is placed in a crane during the operation of the crane. The cause of this situation: first, because of the improper operation of the driver, the speed of the mechanism in the operation is too fast to make the hanger (with) a great inertia; two, because of the misoperation of the command, the hanging route is not reasonable, which causes the crane to squeeze and collide in the violent swing.
(2) hanging objects (equipment) are not stable enough to fall down and smash people. The cause of this situation: first, because of the improper rotation of the hoist (with), the necessary safety protection measures are not taken for the major hoist (with) rotation instability; two is due to the bad management of the hoisting operation field, which causes the hanging objects to fall suddenly and smash the people.
(3) squeezed collision in the operation of the operation of a floating crane in command or repair, that is, the extrusion collision of the crane machinery in the operation (turning) between the operating mechanism of the lifting machinery and the rotating mechanism, and the cause of this situation: one is due to the improper position of the commanding staff (such as standing on the revolving arm frame and the body. " Secondly, because the necessary safety precautions were not taken in the overhaul operation, the driver squeezed and touched people when he started the lifting machinery (turning) rashly.
(4) in the inspection or maintenance of the bridge crane operation is squeezed collision, that is, between the crane and construction (construction) between the construction (such as a bridge crane running on the track or stand on the inspecting pedestrian passage), by the operation of the lifting machinery extrusion collision. The cause of this situation: most of the repair operations in the bridge crane, one is due to the lack of interrelation between the inspectors or the maintenance workers and the driver, and the two is due to the lack of necessary safety measures in the maintenance operation (such as the installation of the crane between the running area of the big car), which causes the driver to start up. Heavy machine extrusion collided people.
2.2 electric shock (electric shock)
Electric shock (electric shock) refers to the electric shock (electric shock) that occurs when a worker touches a charged body in a crane operation.
Most of the hoisting machinery work in an electric environment, electric shock (shock) also occurs in the hoisting machinery work in the common casualties.
There are four main types of electric shock in the crane operation.
(1) the driver touches the slippery line.
When the cab of the hoisting machinery is installed on the same side of the sliding contact line, the driver touches the slide line when he goes up and down the crane and is electrocuted.
The cause of this situation: first, because the driver's room setting is not reasonable, it is generally not to set the same side with the sliding contact line; two is that the crane does not set the protective plate (net) near the end of the sliding contact line, causing the driver to electric shock (electric shock).
(2) the hoisting machinery touches the high pressure transmission line in the open-air operation, that is, the floating crane in the open air operation is under the high pressure transmission line or the tower type crane on the side of the high voltage transmission line. It touches the high voltage transmission line in the process of extending arm, bending and turning, making the lifting machine live, causing the workers to electroshock (electric shock). The cause of this situation: first, because of the lifting machinery under the high pressure wire (side) operation did not take the necessary safety protection measures (such as adding screen protection isolation); two is due to improper command, operation is incorrect, resulting in electric shock electrification of the equipment, resulting in electric shock (electric shock).
(3) electric facilities are leaking. The cause of this situation: one is because the maintenance of the electrical equipment of the lifting machinery is not in time, the electricity leakage occurs; two is because the driver's room has not set the safe insulating mat, causing the driver to electric shock (electric shock) because of the leakage of the equipment.
(4) hoisting rope touches the sliding contact line, that is, the hoisting (lifting) of the wire rope is caused by the sharp swing of the hoist during the oblique pulling or lifting.